Vitis vinifera is also called Common Grape Vine and is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Spain north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran. It is a liana growing to 35 m tall. It holds on to supports with twining tendrils. An interesting climber with green leaves covered with silvery down. This plant is ideal for color compositions with shrubs, other climbers or trees with dark leaves or flowers.
The leaves are alternate, palmate and lobed, about 5-20 cm long and broad. The flowers of the vine are of color yellow-green and are gathered in bunches. They are intensely fragrant, hermaphrodites (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects. Since it has both sexes, you need only one plant to be able to enjoy the fruits. The flowers will bloom from May to July.
The fruit is a berry, known as a grape; in the wild species it is 6 mm diameter and ripens dark purple to blackish with a pale wax bloom; in cultivated plants it is usually much larger, up to 3 cm long, and can be green, red, or purple. Fruits ripen from September to October. Hardiness zones: 6-10 (-20°C/-5°F, 1°C/35°F) in winter. Tolerating temperatures down to about -20°c. Best grown in fertile, moist but permeable soil that is rich in calcium, but it will also succeed moderate soil.
This vine does best in calcium rich fertile loamy evenly moist soils for best production and flavorful fruit. It likes sunny, warm and well-aerated spots. When grown in shade, the leaves turn green. It can freeze during severe winters. The species typically occurs in humid forests and stream sides.